This is the first in a series of articles on the ideology of Eurasianism, a driving force behind many of Putin’s actions.

"The Three Bogatyrs" (1898) by Viktor Vasnetsov

Much has been said about the ideology of Eurasianism—many criticisms raised, many praises expressed—but what exactly does it stand for?

Among the competing definitions and explanations of Eurasianism, that presented by Alexander Dugin in Putin Vs Putin (Arktos, 2014, p. 175 – 177) is probably the best summary of the core beliefs, as it presents the most important elements with neither apology nor justification, unlike many of other explanations that are available.

In keeping with this approach, rather than discuss the relevance of each Eurasianist position, I will introduce them objectively so that you can judge each for yourself. Dugin presents the following three core beliefs as the essentials of Eurasianism (an ideology often associated with the Fourth Political Theory, though more concerned with geopolitics).

1. Multipolar World Theory (MWT)

The first belief of the Eurasianists is that the world should not be unipolar, as is currently the case with American hegemony, nor bipolar, but multipolar. This entails first breaking free from Western spiritual hegemony (cosmopolitism, liberalism, democracy, etc.) and from American world domination. 
Instead of a unipolar world, the Eurasianists envision the creation of several independent and sovereign centers of global strategic decision making. Concretely it would mean the creation of several blocs, called Great Spaces, where geopolitical decisions would be taken, but in which the sovereignty and interests of smaller nations, with regard to international matters, would be subsumed.
2. Integration of the Post-Soviet Space

As a consequence of MWT, Eurasianists wish to see the integration of the former Soviet states, though based on a different ideological basis than before. The former Soviet republics would be reunited with Russia resulting in a more powerful bloc that could oppose American imperialism.

3. Russian Federation

The Soviet republics would be united within the Russian Federation, thus abolishing the pre-existing nations. Ethnic nationalism and separatism would be fought vigorously, although ethnic and religious rights should be protected (though without any legal recognition of these ethnic groups). Russian would become the official language, meaning that everyone, including people from different ethnic backgrounds, would need to speak Russian as a second language, while the Russians could speak their own language wherever they are in the federation.

In closing, even if Eurasianism, as termed by Dugin, is claimed to be a traditionalist conservative ideology with ties to the German Conservative Revolution, it is first and foremost a geopolitical project clearly opposed to ethnocentrism and ethnic nationalism.

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